Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura
[February 13, 2020 is the appearance day of jagad-guru Śrī Śrīmad Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda, in Vṛndāvana, India. The following is an excerpt of his glories from from 'Vīśuddha caitanya-vāṇī - Volume 1', by Śrīla Bhakti Vijñāna Bhāratī Gosvāmī Mahārāja.]
When my Parama-gurudeva, Śrīla Prabhupāda Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura, along with his disciples, inaugurated the widespread preaching of unalloyed rūpānuga ideology under the guidance and instruction of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu and His associates who appeared before Śrīla Prabhupāda, he was met with opposition at every corner. Despite immense opposition, he never deviated even slightly from his righteous objective. Instead, through the media of his disciples and his writings, he completely defeated almost all the heretical ideologies prevalent at the time, and established the gauḍīya-vicāradhārā, or the current of Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇavism thought.
HIS HUMILITY AND TOLERANCE
Śrīla Prabhupāda was the true embodiment of the humility described by Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabu in Śrī Śikṣāṣṭakam (3):
tṛṇād api sunīcena
taror api sahiṣṇunā
kīrtanīyaḥ sadā hariḥ
With the humility of a blade of grass and the tolerance of a tree, a person should, while giving due respect to others without desiring respect himself, constantly chant the names of Hari.
Śrīla Prabhupāda’s humility was especially manifested during the Śrī Navadvīpa-dhāma parikramā of 1925, in which he led a group of five thousand pilgrims, along with one hundred eight mṛdaṅga players. In the front of the massive parikramā party was the Deity of Śrīman Mahāprabhu, riding magnificently atop an elephant.
During that time, a group of people, including bābājīs and jāti gosā̃is (caste-conscious brāhmaṇas born in the Gosvāmī family lineage), had been losing prestige and donations due to Śrīla Prabhupāda’s fearless preaching of the true Gauḍīya doctrine as taught by Śrīman Mahāprabhu, which in many cases contradicted and challenged the tainted philosophies of these antagonists. These persons grew envious of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s ever-increasing fame and influence, and they therefore descended upon the parikramā procession with the wicked intention of taking his life. Śrīla Prabhupāda, however, was unperturbed; he considered the attack merely an attempt to cause him bodily harm.
When police officials arrived on the scene and inquired from Śrīla Prabhupāda about who he suspected was behind this attack, he replied, “No one.” His disciples were apprehensive about his dismissal of the incident, and felt that unless they took action against the assailants, it would be impossible to perform parikramā peacefully in the future. In reply, Śrīla Prabhupāda firmly stated, “The incident caused us no harm. Actually, it has proven to be favorable for us; it easily accomplished a great task that otherwise could only have been achieved even after spending millions of rupees. Because the incident was front-page news, countless persons who had never heard of the Gauḍīya Maṭha have now come to know about it. Prominent personalities from distant locations—such as the kings of Tripura, Vārdhamāna, Koch Bihar, and even Jaipura—have inquired about the incident.”
In this way, although Śrīla Prabhupāda, being an eternally perfected associate of Śrī Kṛṣṇa, was free of faults and their subsequent reactions, still, through his own conduct he demonstrated the proper application of the following verse of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (10.14.8):
tat te ’nukampāṁ su-samīkṣamāṇo
bhuñjāna evātma-kṛtaṁ vipākam
hṛd-vāg-vapurbhir vidadhan namas te
jīveta yo mukti-pade sa dāya-bhāk
One who, while always expecting Your mercy, tolerates the results of his previous misdeeds and constantly offers respects to You with his heart, speech and body, is eligible to receive the inheritance of Your lotus feet.
Another time, while preparing for the Śrī Navadvīpa-dhāma parikramā, Śrīla Prabhupāda, along with his assistant Śrī Paramānanda Brahmacārī, went to scout an appropriate open space or garden where all the pilgrims attending the parikramā could stay. In those days, the pilgrims would sleep in such open-air spaces, and only the kitchen would have a canopy. In Campaka-haṭṭa, they found a large mango orchard with a pond nearby. Finding the space suitable, Śrīla Prabhupāda finalized all the booking arrangements and returned.
That evening, some items were stolen from a residence near the orchard. A First Information Report (FIR) against Śrīla Prabhupāda, which stated he had scouted the area for steal-able goods in the morning and returned in the evening to thieve them, was lodged at the local police station. Śrīla Prabhupāda, however, did not respond to this accusation.
When Śrī Pal Choudhury, a very influential local landowner who owned a tea garden and resided in a very large property that included a helipad used by the British, came to know about the incident, he immediately marched over to the police station. He was a well-respected member of society, recognized by even the British government, and so the police officials listened to him with due attention. He told them he wanted to file an FIR of his own, because his pond had been stolen the previous night. Confused, the attending officer inquired, “Sir, how can a pond be stolen? It is impossible. How can we write a report about a stolen pond?”
Śrī Pal Choudhury replied, “You are correct; it is impossible. But yet more impossible is Śrī Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī committing burglary. Are you even slightly aware of his greatness?” On the request of Śrī Pal Choudhury, the FIR against Śrīla Prabhupāda was immediately dropped.
After the complaint was dismissed, the people of Champaka-haṭṭa, having realized their mistake in falsely accusing such a divine personality, felt ashamed. Considering that they had committed a grave offense, they felt the only way to repent was to offer service to Śrīla Prabhupāda, and they therefore donated to the Gauḍīya Maṭha the Śrī Gaura-Gadādhara temple, which was served by Dvija Vaṇīnātha, the younger brother of Śrīla Gadādhara Paṇḍita.
HIS DEFENSE AND PROTECTION OF THE RŪPĀNUGAS
Although Śrīla Prabhupāda would silently endure personal attacks against himself, he never for a moment tolerated attacks against either the principles of rūpānuga ideology or those who sincerely followed that ideology. He would not allow even the smallest statements opposing the true philosophy of Śrī Rūpa Gosvāmīpāda to go unanswered, and in issuing his rebuttals, he gave no consideration to the social status of the person he was debating. If required, he would even file lawsuits against his opponents to establish the authenticity and superiority of the Gauḍīya line of thought. It is for this reason that his praṇāma-mantra states, “rūpānuga-viruddhāpasiddhānta-dhvānta-hāriṇe—you deliver the fallen souls and annihilate the darkness arising from misconceptions (apasiddhānta) opposed (viruddha) to the precepts enunciated by Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī.”
Simply put, Śrīla Prabhupāda was indifferent to what others said or did in opposition to him; he never took anything personally. He was instead always carefully engaged in both following and establishing the instructions of our guru-varga.
He tirelessly performed many services, such as publishing bhakti literature, establishing new temples, performing arcana, organizing exhibitions about spiritual knowledge, and sending his disciples across the globe to preach the message of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu. We become filled with great awe and reverence for Śrīla Prabhupāda simply by hearing about his incessant efforts to bring eternal spiritual welfare to the conditioned souls of this world.
THE RARITY OF ACCEPTING KṚṢṆA-BHAKTI
Once, a young boy came to the maṭha with the desire to stay there, and declared, “I will not return home. I will only do so if Śrīla Prabhupāda orders me to return.”
When Śrīla Prabhupāda came to know about this from one of his sevakas, he said, “Do you think me to be such a stone-hearted person that I will order someone so desirous of residing and serving in the maṭha to return home? After roaming around in various universes (brahmāṇḍas), countless living entities have gathered here in this world. It is extremely rare for even a few of these living entities to desire to reside in the maṭha. Only very rare, highly fortunate souls nurture such a desire. How can I ask such a soul to leave the maṭha and return to the service of māyā?”
BHĀVA IS THE REAL VALUE OF KĪRTANA
A few days before Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda manifested his disappearance pastime, he expressed a desire to hear a few special kīrtanas. To fulfill his request, his sevaka brought a devotee who was well-known for singing in a very melodious voice with perfect pitch and rhythm, whose voice he knew to be pleasing to Śrīla Prabhupāda’s ears. But upon seeing this kīrtanīya, Śrīla Prabhupāda said, “I do not wish to listen to a well-crafted, melodious kīrtana, but rather one sung from the core of the heart, sung by one who fully comprehends the bhāvas and most transcendental meanings of the kīrtana he sings.”
He then ordered Śrī Śrīmad Bhakti Rakṣaka Śrīdhara Gosvāmī Mahārāja and Śrī Navīna-kṛṣṇa Vidyālaṅkāra to sing Śrī Rūpa-mañjarī-pada and Tuhũ Dayā-sāgara, respectively. Through this pastime, Śrīla Prabhupāda established the importance of performing kīrtana only after thoroughly understanding and realizing the deep meanings and underlying moods of our ācāryas’ kīrtanas rather than being concerned merely with melody and rhythm. However, one should not think that the devotee whose kīrtana Śrīla Prabhupāda refused to hear was an ordinary person or interested simply in the melodiousness of kīrtana. In fact, he was a topmost kīrtanīya. Earlier in Purī, Śrīla Prabhupāda had many times listened to his kīrtana with great eagerness. Śrīla Prabhupāda stopped him from singing at that time for no other reason than to establish and teach one particular point of view.
Being a nitya-siddha parikāra (eternally perfect associate) of Bhagavān, Śrīla Prabhupāda knows everything. Because he knows past, present and the future, he is referred to as trikāla-jña, or omniscient. He understood that the mindless conditioned living beings of this world pay no mind to the gravity of the moods and deep meanings of kīrtana, and instead, for the sake of earning worldly fame and recognition, become absorbed in meditating on melody, tune and rhythm, thinking such things to be the essence of kīrtana. Therefore, Śrīla Prabhupāda used one of his dear associates to deliver this most significant teaching for the benefit of foolish persons like us.
Only the most intimate and completely surrendered associates of great realized souls can truly understand the important teachings they bestow, and through whom and at which opportune moment they choose to bestow them. Otherwise, after hearing the above-mentioned story, how will one be able to reconcile why Śrīla Prabhupāda himself previously adorned Śrī Mohinī Bābū, the uncle of Śrī Śrīmad Bhakti Kumuda Santa Gosvāmī Mahārāja, with the title ‘Rāga-bhūṣaṇa’—which means ‘one who is ornamented by melody’—after being extremely satisfied by hearing his highly melodious kīrtanas sung in perfect pitch and with flawless rhythm; why he allowed the use of such vaiṣṇava musical instruments as karatālas, kāṅsā and mṛdaṅgas during the daily kīrtanas in the maṭha; why he ordered the arrangement of a performance by one hundred eight mṛdaṅga players when he re-established Śrī Navadvīpa-dhāma parikramā; or why Śrīla Muni Gosvāmī Mahārāja, a disciple of Śrīla Prabhupāda, would snatch karatālas from the hands of devotees who made even the slightest mistake in playing them properly during kīrtana?
Many of our previous ācāryas, also, have established the importance of melody and rhythm in kīrtana, and how such considerations correlate with the pastimes of Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa. For example, Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura has written in Prārthana (25):
suyantre miśā̃iyā gābô su-madhura tāna
ānande kôribô dũhāra rūpa-guṇa-gāna
Accompanied by musical instruments, I will sing sweet melodies. In great bliss I shall perform songs that glorify the form and qualities of the Divine Couple.
Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura has written:
śrī viśākhā-pade, saṅgīta śikhibô,
Śrī Śrī Gīta-mālā (5.4.3)
At the lotus feet of Śrī Viśākhā, I shall learn music abounding with the nectar of Kṛṣṇa’s pastimes.
tāthai tāthai’ bājalô khol,
ghana ghana tāhe jhā̃jhera rola
“Tāthai, tāthai,” the mṛdaṅgas resounded, and the karatālas played in time.
nārada muni, bājāya vīṇā,
Nārada Muni’s fingers played the notes on his vīṇā, which chanted ‘Rādhikā-ramaṇa.’
Another Vaiṣṇava ācārya has written:
lalitā bājāiya vīṇā, viśākhā mṛdaṅga,
phula caḓāya nāce sakhī vidyā tuṅga
Śrī Lalitā Sakhī plays the vīna, Śrī Viśākhā Sakhī plays the drum, and Śrī Tuṅgavidyā Sakhī dances, strewing flowers all about.
Even Śrī Krsna Himself—by playing His flute, horn and other instruments—has approved the use of musical instruments through His own conduct. In fact, all the sixty-four arts have been manifested by the Lord simply for His pleasure.
Therefore, upon hearing that Śrīla Prabhupāda once refused to hear a melodious kīrtana, we should not conclude that the use of vaiṣṇava musical instruments in kīrtana is inappropriate, or that devotees who sing in a sweet, melodious voice are to be discouraged from performing kīrtana. The actual message is that real kīrtana is performed after one properly understands the underlying moods and deep meanings of that kīrtana. However, the aesthetic features of kīrtana—such as melody, rhythm and vocal expression —should not be entirely dismissed, but rather seen as being favorable for bhakti. In his Bhakti-rasāmṛta sindhu (1.2.200), Śrīla Rūpa Gosvāmī has quoted:
laukikī vaidikī vāpi yā
kriyā kriyate mune
kāryā bhaktim icchatā
O, Muni! Whether a devotee desires to act according to the customs of society or the Vedic injunctions, everything he does is favorable for the service of Śrī Hari.
BHĀVA-GRAHI ŚRĪLA PRABHUPĀDA
When Śrī Śrīmad Bhakti Vaibhava Sāgara Gosvāmī Mahārāja, a sannyāsī disciple of Śrīla Prabhupāda, would speak hari-kathā during his preaching, only few could understand him, because his expression of speech was largely incomprehensible. Although everyone in the audience would gradually leave one by one during his lectures, he would continue speaking. Seeing the hall empty, a couple brahmacārīs accompanying Mahārāja would request him, “Mahārāja, you may stop your speech now; no one is present. We will begin packing up the mats and folding all the rugs in the kīrtana hall.”
But Mahārāja would reply, “You are unable to understand. You are aware only of the entities present in their gross bodies who have now left. There are many living entities present here in their subtle bodies, as well as other living beings nearby—like trees, creepers, and insects—and they are all listening. Moreover, I am speaking for my own spiritual welfare. If anyone stays and listens, they will also be benefited. Will I not be spiritually benefitted by speaking hari-kathā even if no one is present? Did Śrīla Prabhupāda not instruct us to perform nityaṁ bhāgavata-sevā—that is, to perpetually engage in the service of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam through śravaṇa and kīrtana—or did he instruct us to engage in such bhāgavata-sevā as a demonstration only to be performed when a certain number of listeners are present?”
A few devotees eventually brought Śrīla Sāgara Gosvāmī Mahārāja’s views on these incidents to the attention of Śrīla Prabhupāda.
Śrīla Sāgara Gosvāmī Mahārāja was also not well adept at collecting significant donations. Once, when Śrīla Mahārāja was returning to Kolkata, he did not even have sufficient funds to pay for his train ticket, and so he boarded the train without a ticket, along with the two brahmacārīs accompanying him. Upon arriving at the Kolkata railway station, the three were detained for traveling without tickets. News of this quickly reached Śrīla Prabhupāda at the Kolkata maṭha. Later, when Śrīla Sāgara Mahārāja reached the Kolkata maṭha, Śrīla Prabhupāda sent his disciples to welcome Śrīla Mahārāja with saṅkīrtana, and said, “Śrī Sāgara Mahārāja is truly a jīvan-mukta mahāpuruṣa—a great, completely liberated personality.”
Śrīla Prabhupāda, the pure servant of bhāva-grahī Janardana—that is, Śrī Kṛṣṇa, who accepts the mood and intention of one’s service rather than the external paraphernalia used—would acknowledge and appreciate the mood and favorable disposition of those engaged in the service of Śrī Hari, guru and Vaiṣṇavas with a pure, sincere heart devoid of duplicity. He was completely aloof from the consideration of such external qualifications as one’s eloquence in delivering hari-kathā or one’s ability to collect large donations for the maṭha.
Through this pastime, Śrīla Prabhupāda established the standard of complete impartiality and freedom from envy and duplicity. His conduct should be followed by all sincere devotees.
ACCEPTING THE SUBSTANCE
My śikṣā-guru, Śrīpāda Kṛṣṇa-keśava Prabhu, who had taken shelter of Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda, resided in the maṭha. His father, Śrī Sarveśvara dāsa Adhikārī, who was not initiated at the time, came to Śrīdhāma Māyāpura during Śrī Gaura-pūrṇimā with the intention of taking his son back home to Assam. However, upon meeting Śrīla Prabhupāda and witnessing his conduct, hearing his hari-kathā, and observing his illuminating influence, as well as that of his surrendered disciples, he not only dismissed all thoughts of taking his son back home, but also desired to accept harināma initiation from Śrīla Prabhupāda. Seeing the aspiring devotees with shaven heads waiting outside Śrīla Prabhupāda’s bhajana-kuṭīra to take harināma, he too shaved his head and joined them. At that time, one of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s disciples came to him and said, “You will not be able to receive harināma today, because you have a habit of smoking cigarettes and bīḍīs (tobacco rolled in a tobacco leaf).”
He replied, “If this habit of mine is preventing me from being accepted as Śrīla Prabhupāda’s disciple, then from this moment onward, I will not even so much as touch cigarettes or bīḍīs.”
Having overhead the conversation from inside his bhajana-kuṭīra, Śrīla Prabhupāda told his disciple, “Please call for this gentleman at once. I shall award him harināma initiation today.”
Because he was a realized soul, Śrīla Prabhupāda could understand the implied meaning of simple hearted statements; he knew whether a person was determined or sentimentally speaking under the influence of the occasion.
From then on, Śrī Sarveśvara dāsa Adhikārī would remember, “In order to receive harināma from a mahāpuruṣa, I have taken a vow to never again smoke cigarettes or bīḍī.” He thus led a life based on Vaiṣṇava principles and never once touched cigarettes or bīḍī again.
Once, a person with the desire to receive harināma approached Śrīla Prabhupāda and said with a simple heart, “Mahārāja, I have lead an abominable life, and have eaten various types of meat, including even pork. I am now taking a vow to renounce all such detestable activities. Will you please accept me as a servant of your lotus feet?”
Although there were many persons who, despite residing in the maṭha for some years, were never awarded harināma or dīkṣā, Śrīla Prabhupāda, recognizing the man’s simplicity and sincerity, awarded him harināma initiation.
THE MAṬHA IS A PLACE FOR PERFORMING MAHAT-SEVĀ
Because the creation of maṭhas, temples and monasteries will eventually lead to their residents engaging in court cases and infighting over external considerations, Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura advised not to establish them. Yet, Śrīla Prabhupāda, considering the positive aspects of creating such institutions, established many maṭhas. His intention was to provide those who—though possessing a desire to so —were unable to perform bhajana on their own due to their uncontrolled senses, an opportunity to receive the association and mercy of great, realized souls. Śrīla Prabhupāda used to say, “Although Bhagavān makes Himself known through guru, sādhu and śāstra, it is impossible to gain entry into the deeper meanings of the śāstras without attaining the mercy of realized devotees. Śrī Jaḍa Bharata, Śrī Prahlāda and Śrī Rṣabhadeva have thus emphasized the importance of mahat-saṅga by stating, respectively, ‘vinā mahat-pāda-rajo-‘bhiṣekam—unless a person smears on his body the dust of the lotus feet of elevated, realized devotees, he cannot realize the Absolute Truth;’ ‘mahīyasām pādarajo-’bhiṣekaṁ niṣkiñcanānām na vṛṇīta yāvat—it is impossible for those who do not smear themselves with the foot dust of great devotees who are fully detached from mundane sense objects to touch the glories of Śrī Kṛṣṇa;’ and ‘mahat-sevāṁ dvāram āhur vimuktes—only by rendering service to mahātmās can one attain the path of liberation from material bondage.’ ”
Although a place may externally appear to be a maṭha, and though it may be advertised as such, it cannot be called a maṭha in the truest sense of the word if within its walls there is no arrangement for hearing and speaking hari-kathā. All activities performed at such a place are simply karma. The fruits of karma lead only to destinations within the fourteen planetary systems, and not beyond. As a result of engaging in mahat-sevā, however, one can attain even the qualification to serve Śrī Śrī Rādhā-Kṛṣṇa in Goloka Vṛndāvana, the topmost realm of Vaikuṇṭha. Śrīla Prabhupāda has said, “A person who resides in the maṭha without hearing and speaking harikathā simply performs karma.” In other words, if a person proudly claims to be a resident of maṭha but neglects to actively participate in hearing and speaking hari-kathā, then his maṭha-vāsa is purely superficial; he does not truly reside in maṭha.
ŚRI NAVADVĪPA-PAÑJIKĀ AND THE IMPORTANCE OF REMEMBERING VAIṢṆAVAS
Even in his advanced age, vaiṣṇava-sārvabhauma Śrīla Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja, out of his endless compassion, used to visit the bhajana-kuṭīra of Śrīla Bhaktivinoda Ṭhākura by sitting in a basket carried on the head of his disciple, Śrīla Bihārī dāsa Bābājī. One time, when Śrīla Bābājī Mahārāja came to know of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s proficiency in the field of astrology, he ordered him to initiate the publication of Śrī Navadvīpa-pañjikā, a calendar that would include the appearance days of the incarnations of Viṣṇu and the manifestations of His śakti, as well as the appearance and disappearance days of great Vaiṣṇavas, as per the Gauḍīya line of thought. Śrīla Bābājī Mahārāja said, “It is not possible to attain spiritual welfare without remembering the lotus feet of the Vaiṣṇavas. Moreover, it is an offense not to remember and glorify them, especially on the days of their appearance and disappearance.” Śrīla Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja then provided Śrīla Prabhupāda with his own personal compilation of important dates and their respective descriptions. Remembering the words of Śrīla Narottama dāsa Ṭhākura, “guru-mukha-padma-vākya, cittete kôriyā aikya—make the words emanating from the lotus mouth of śrī guru one with your heart,” Śrīla Prabhupāda accepted the instructions of Śrīla Jagannātha dāsa Bābājī Mahārāja to be of the utmost importance, and thus published Śrī Navadvīpa-pañjikā, in which he included all the necessary dates (tithis).
It is solely because of Śrīla Bābājī Mahārāja’s great benediction, as manifested through Śrīla Prabhupāda, that we have become aware of these important tithis and have been given the opportunity to wholeheartedly observe them as they respectively arrive during the course of the year. Śrī Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura has written:
ĵe vaiṣṇava bhajile acintya kṛṣṇa pāi
se vaiṣṇava-pūjā hôite baḓa āra nāi
Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata (Antya-khaṇḍa 4.357)
There is nothing greater than worshipping Vaiṣṇavas, because by worshiping them, one can attain the inconceivable Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
One develops affection for Vaiṣṇavas by glorifying them, associating with them, and by rendering service to them. As a result of such activities, our mind—which would otherwise remain completely absorbed in the endless expanse of māyā—becomes purified, and we attain spiritual realization completely beyond the material influence of māyā, and thus become completely immersed in transcendental bliss.
AFFECTIONATE SERVICE IS GREAT SERVICE
Once, many disciples of Śrīla Prabhupāda gathered together and, through his personal assistant, Śrī Paramānanda Prabhu, submitted a query to him: “Among the many devotees in the maṭha who, having accepted the shelter of your lotus feet, sincerely and incessantly engage in rendering various kinds of services for your divine pleasure both day and night, whose service do you consider to be the topmost?”
Śrīla Prabhupāda replied to such a profound question with simple words: “The greatness of a person’s service to the Vaiṣṇavas is directly proportional to the amount of love and affection he has developed in his heart for those Vaiṣṇavas; the greater the affection, the greater the service.”
RE-ESTABLISHING ŚRI DHĀMA-PARIKRAMĀ
In his life, Śrīla Prabhupāda travelled to nearly all the holy places in India. In reality, because he was a nitya-siddha parikara (eternally perfected associate) of the Lord, there was no need for him to do this. Still, in order to establish through his own conduct the importance of the statement of Śrīmad Bhāgavatam (9.4.18), “pādau hareḥ kṣetra-padānusarpaṇe—one should engage one’s feet in circumambulating the places of Śrī Hari’s pastimes,” he embarked on extensive journeys. However, he has also stated, “Although I went to many holy places with a desire to seek the association of Vaiṣṇavas, I could not find a single pure Vaiṣṇava in all my travels.”
Understanding the futility of laboriously visiting holy places with the aim of attaining sādhu-saṅga, Śrīla Prabhupāda re-established the annual performance of parikramā in three dhāmas—Śrī Vrajamaṇḍala, Śrī Kṣetra-maṇḍala and Śrī Gaura-maṇḍala—in order to provide everyone with the opportunity to hear and speak hari-kathā in mahat-saṅga, the association of greatly elevated Vaiṣṇavas.
HIS PERSPECTIVE ON JĪVA-HIṂSĀ
Ordinarily, the term jīva-hiṁsā is understood by people to mean ‘a physical or emotional act of violence against living entities, including oneself.’ If a person commits suicide, it is said that person has committed ātma-hatyā (murder of the self). But Śrīla Prabhupāda has explained that this is actually not ātma-hatyā, but rather śarīra-hatyā (murder of the body).
Therefore, physical or emotional violence against the gross and subtle bodies of the jīva is not jīvahiṁsā, because the jīva is a spiritual soul distinct from these two bodies. While harming the gross and subtle bodies may be called jīva-hiṁsā by people in general, it is in fact not the true meaning of jīvahiṁsā.
The soul is indestructible and cannot be harmed. Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa has mentioned in Bhagavad-gītā (2.23):
nainaṁ chindanti śastrāṇi
nainaṁ dahati pāvakaḥ
na cainaṁ kledayanty āpo
na śoṣayati mārutaḥ
acchedyo ’yam adāhyo ’yam
akledyo ’śoṣya eva ca
nityaḥ sarva-gataḥ sthāṇur
acalo ’yaṁ sanātanaḥ
The soul can never be pierced by any weapon, nor burned by fire, nor moistened by water nor dried by the wind. The soul is indivisible, insoluble and cannot be burned or dried. He is eternal, all-pervading, permanent, non-moving and ever existing.
The question then arises: what is the real meaning of jīva-hiṁsā?
Śrīla Prabhupāda has explained that the jīva possesses the qualification to attain the highest abode, provided he has undergone the required training and has properly understood the nature of that abode. Actual jīva-hiṁsā is of two types: (1) knowingly or unknowingly attempting to divert the jīva from the path leading to the highest abode (the path of pure bhakti) by instructing him to take up another path leading to a temporary destination, such as the paths of karma, jñāna, yoga and so on, and (2) abstaining from helping the jīva progress on the path leading to the highest abode. Therefore, real ahiṁsā (nonviolence) is to preach and follow the path of pure bhakti, and not the paths of karma, jñāna, yoga and so on.
Unless a person has understood the true substance of this matter, his avoidance of performing jīvahiṁsā more or less goes in vain.
Śrīla Prabhupāda has very clearly mentioned in his commentary on Guṇḍicā-mandira-mārjana-līlā-rahasya that jīva-hiṁsā means to have either kuṇṭhā (hesitation) or kṛpaṇatā (miserliness) in one’s preaching of śuddha-bhakti; to give māyāvādīs, karmīs or anyābhilāṣīs an opportunity (praśraya) to speak about their philosophies; or to speak solely for the sake of pleasing one’s listeners.
ENGAGING OTHERS IN SERVICE ACCORDING TO THEIR RESPECTIVE QUALIFICATIONS
It is extremely difficult to understand the activities and intentions of mahā-bhāgavata Vaiṣṇavas. Although their behavior may externally seem contradictory at times, such contradictions are perfectly harmonized in their one-pointed determination to serve Śrī Hari, guru and Vaiṣnavas. Being a servant of the all-knowing Supreme Lord, Śrīla Prabhupāda was able to perceive even the subtlest of intentions in all people, and he thus knew how to interact with each and every individual in a manner that would bring about their spiritual welfare. What follows is an example of how he handled two similar situations in very different ways.
Before Śrīpāda Yadumaṇi Bābū, a resident of Khurdā city in Orissa, took shelter at the lotus feet of Śrīla Prabhupāda, he worked for Purī Municipality. Later, he accepted residence at Śrī Puruṣottama Gauḍīya Maṭha, established by Śrīla Prabhupāda, near Caṭaka-parvata in Purī. During his time there, he developed a very beautiful garden with vegetables, fruits and flowers. He even prepared the fertilizer with his own hands. Śrīla Prabhupāda was residing in the Kaṭaka maṭha at the time, and when he heard many devotees praising the garden, he sent a letter to the manager of Śrī Puruṣottama Gauḍīya Maṭha, ordering him to send Śrī Yadumaṇi Bābū to Kaṭaka.
Upon reading the letter, the maṭha’s manager became very upset and replied to Śrīla Prabhupāda, “If Śrī Yadumaṇi Bābū leaves this place, our garden’s maintenance will cease and everything will dry up. There is no one in the maṭha capable of serving like him.”
Śrīla Prabhupāda replied, “I can bear to see a withering garden, but I cannot tolerate the withering of Yadumaṇi Bābū’s spiritual life. A conditioned soul can never have such a natural inclination to serve; something is definitely wrong there. Please send him to Kaṭaka immediately. By being attached to that garden, his attachment for Bhagavān will gradually decrease until all that remains is his attachment to the garden. It is our duty to be attached to Bhagavān.
yuktaṁ vairāgyam ucyate
A person without attachment to sense enjoyment who accepts whatever facilities are appropriate for the service of Śrī Kṛṣṇa is not bound by such activities. Such detachment is said to be yukta-vairāgya, which means renunciation through always maintaining a connection with Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
“Remaining attached to sense objects and not to the principles established by our ācāryas is not only unfavorable for bhakti, but is completely against it. The true identity of Śrī Caitanya Maṭha is its ideals. Yadumaṇi Bābū’s consciousness is less inclined toward remembering Bhagavān than it is toward remembering that garden. Moreover, he has not reached the stage of firm faith, in which he understands that serving in the garden is equivalent to serving Bhagavān. Unless one develops such unflinching faith, it is essential that one serves under the guidance of senior Vaiṣṇavas. In reality, Yadumaṇi Bābū simply nurtures his tendency to perform karma, and identifies himself as the doer. He thinks he is expert in gardening and that he can even teach it to others.”
In contrast to this story, Śrīpāda Rāma dāsa Prabhu, another disciple of Śrīla Prabhupāda, maintained the garden at Śrī Caitanya Maṭha in Māyāpura. But Śrīla Prabhupāda did not have the same opinion of him as he did for Śrīpāda Yadumaṇi Bābū, because Śrī Rāma dāsa Prabhu never identified himself as the doer. He had accepted his gardening service not to impress anyone, but rather because he believed that this service was alone the means to attain his topmost welfare. Thus, he gardened with firm faith that he was serving Bhagavān and His devotees.
Once, when a person who was desirous of studying Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam approached Śrīla Prabhupāda, Śrīla Prabhupāda sent him to Śrī Rāmadāsa Prabhu. After meeting with Śrī Rāmadāsa Prabhu, that person observed that he was a simple gardener. When he questioned him about Śrīmad Bhāgvatam, Rāmadāsa Prabhu explained that the essence of Bhāgvatam is to engage oneself in the service of Bhagavān and His devotees. That person returned to Śrīla Prabhupāda and complained, “Rāmadāsa Prabhu is not qualified to teach the Bhāgavatam. He wishes only to engage me in gardening, and he says that this service is the essence of the Bhāgavatam.”
Śrīla Prabhupāda replied, “Śrī Rāmadāsa Prabhu is a true bhāgavata. He has perfected his life by perfectly imbibing the teachings of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.”
dehinām iha dehiṣu
prāṇair arthair dhiyā vācā
It is the duty of all embodied beings to perform welfare activities for the benefit of others with their life, wealth, intelligence and words.
In another instance that demonstrates his revolutionary perspective, Śrīla Prabhupāda once himself asked a devotee to buy an expensive pair of shoes for Śrī Śrīmad Bhakti Hṛdaya Vana Gosvāmī Mahārāja, who out of his natural renunciation never wore footwear during his stay in the maṭha. The devotee then then sent those shoes—which cost thirty-two rupees, a considerable expense at that time—to Śrīla Vana Gosvāmī Mahārāja with a message stating that Śrīla Prabhupāda had instructed that he appear before him wearing those shoes. When Śrī Vana Gosvāmī Mahārāja abided by his instruction and came before him wearing the shoes, Śrīla Prabhupāda stated, “Today your renunciation has achieved perfection, because you have renounced even your renunciation for the service of Śrīman Mahāprabhu.”
On the other hand, when Śrīla Prabhupāda observed one devotee wearing shoes that cost a mere eighty-five paisās, he said, “You are a sense enjoyer. It is extremely shameful for a person to wear such expensive shoes after having accepted the veśa (clothes) and vows of a renunciate.”
Śrīla Prabhupāda was of the opinion, “Only she who has accepted the role of queen deserves to wear a queen’s clothes.” With this conception in mind, although there was a car available in the maṭha, Śrīla Prabhupāda did not allow everyone to use it.
ACCEPTING AND DISTRIBUTING IN THE SERVICE OF ŚRĪ HARI
Śrīla Prabhupāda used to say, “Never in my life have I once accepted anything from anyone belonging to this material world. As a servant of Śrī guru, Vaiṣṇavas and Bhagavān, I have openly distributed what belonged to me among all people.”
If we deliberate on the literal meaning of this statement, then Śrīla Prabhupāda’s words may appear to be untrue, because in order to execute various services—such as establishing sixty-four maṭhas, arranging for the maintenance of those maṭhas, sending preachers all over India and even to foreign countries, publishing a Vaiṣṇava calendar and other spiritual literatures, and organizing Śrī Navadvīpa-dhāma and Śrī Vraja-maṇḍala parikramās—he accepted the offerings of many people. Not only this, but in order to collect donations for such services, he, either himself or through his disciples, often requested donors to make contributions.
However, Śrīla Prabhupāda’s internal mood while accepting offerings for such services was similar to that of the hunter disciple of Śrī Nārada Muni. Śrī Nārada had assured his disciple that he (Śrī Nāradajī) would arrange for whatever was required to maintain his life. The hunter, having faith in Śrī Nārada Muni’s words, destroyed his bow and arrows, which were his livelihood, and engaged himself in bhajana. While doing so, he received many offerings from people who were attracted to his devotion. He firmly believed, “All these things are being sent by Śrī guru. These people are simply delivering them to me like postmen. Because Śrī guru has supplied me with such things, it is my duty to use them in the service of Bhagavān as I see fit. If I compassionately distribute them among these postmen or other persons, it will be considered service to Śrī guru and Bhagavān.”
When Śrī Nārada-jī and Śrī Parvata Muni visited the hunter after a year, Śrī Nārada Muni confirmed his disciple’s understanding. When the hunter said, “Gurudeva! You are sending more than I require for my maintenance. Please do not send so many things,” Śrī Nārada-jī did not reply by saying, “I never sent you anything. I am only now coming to see you after a whole year.” Instead, he said, “Use only what you need, and distribute the rest among others.”
Therefore, Śrīla Prabhupāda, who nurtured a deep faith in the words of the scriptures, demonstrated such principles through his own conduct. If we understand and sincerely follow the words of the hunter in our own life, we will not be subjected to material bondage. But if we become attracted to sense objects, and thereby become indebted to the people of this world, we will become bound by sense gratification.
HIS APPRECIATION OF ŚRĪ CAITANYA CARITĀMṚTA
My parama-gurudeva, Śrīla Prabhupāda Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Gosvāmī Ṭhākura, once suddenly asked Śrī Rājarṣi Śaradendu Nārāyaṇa Rāya, the head of Philosophy at the University of Lahore in Agastya Villa, Darjeeling, “If you were forced to live without the association of devotees, but could keep just one spiritual text with you, which text would you choose?”
Rājarṣi Śaradendu Rāya immediately replied, “Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, because it has been stated:
ekaṁ śāstraṁ devakī-putra-gītam
The divine song sung by Śrī Kṛṣṇa is the topmost scripture among all holy scriptures.
pārtho vatsaḥ su-dhīr bhoktā
dugdhaṁ gītāmṛtaṁ mahat
The Upaniṣads are like a cow, and the cowherd boy Śrī Kṛṣṇa milks this cow. The wonderful nectarean milk is Śrīmad Bhagavad-gītā, which is first taken by the calf-like Arjuna, and the remaining milk is drank by the learned scholars and devotees.
gītā su-gītā kartavyā
kim anyaiḥ śāstra-vistarāyaḥ
yā svayaṁ padmanābhasya
One should attentively and regularly hear and read Bhagavad-gītā. What is the need to read any other Vedic literature? This one book will suffice, because it is the essence of all Vedic literatures and has emanated from the lotus mouth of Padmanābha (Śrī Kṛṣṇa).
jala-snānaṁ dine dine
By daily bathing in water, one cleanses oneself of physical dirt only. But bathing even once in the sacred Gaṅgā-like waters of Bhagavad-gītā altogether vanquishes the dirt of this gross material existence (saṁsāra-mala).
After hearing Śrī Rājarṣi Śaradendu Rāya’s answer, Śrīla Prabhupāda said, “Āge kaha āra—speak further,” just as Śrīman Mahāprabhu had said to Śrī Rāmānanda Rāya on the banks of Godvārī River. After thinking deeply for a while, Śrī Rājarṣi Śaradendu Rāya answered, “Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam,” and cited the following verses:
dharmaḥ projjhita-kaitavo ’tra paramo nirmatsarāṇāṁ satāṁ
vedyaṁ vāstavam atra vastu śivadaṁ tāpa-trayonmūlanam
śrīmad-bhāgavate mahā-muni-kṛte kiṁ vā parair īśvaraḥ
sadyo hṛdy avarudhyate ’tra kṛtibhiḥ śuśrūṣubhis tat-kṣaṇāt
In this Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam—which has been manifested by Śrī Vyāsadeva, the greatest saint of the primeval times—the true and topmost duty of the living entities (bhāgavata-dharma) has been explained. If a person devotedly hears this most sublime scripture and follows the bhāgavata-dharma explained within, his threefold miseries will be destroyed, he will meet with all auspiciousness, and he will then realize true knowledge about the Supreme Truth. Thus, he will become able to bind the Supreme Lord within his heart as per his own sweet will. For a person desirous of attaining the above-mentioned symptoms, there is no need to hear or follow any scripture other than Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. But an applicant of the university of bhāgavata-dharma must have two qualifications. Firstly, he should not engage in kaitava (pretentious, cheating activities), and secondly, he should be a nirmatsāra sādhu, a person whose heart is full of compassion for all living beings, including himself.
yasyāṁ vai śrūyamāṇāyāṁ
bhaktir utpadyate puṁsaḥ
Mere aural reception of this Vedic literature causes bhakti to Bhagavān Śrī Kṛṣṇa to sprout up at once and extinguish the fire of lamentation, illusion and fear.
nigama-kalpa-taror galitaṁ phalaṁ
pibata bhāgavataṁ rasam ālayaṁ
muhur aho rasikā bhuvi bhāvukāḥ
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the mature, succulent fruit of the wish-fulfilling tree of Vedic literatures. It emanated from the lips of Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī and, through the disciplic succession of bona fide gurus, it has willingly descended upon this earth in its entirety. It is saturated with the supremely pleasing ambrosial nectar of transcendental emotion (rasa). Having no skin, hard seed, fibers or other discardable parts, it is fit for drinking because it is completely liquid. O great devotees— you who are bhāvuka (well acquainted with the transcendental nectarean emotions of divine love) and rasika (expert in relishing all the specific forms of the liquefied, ambrosia of transcendental emotion)—you should repeatedly drink the sweet nectar of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, even in the liberated stage. Indeed, the supremely liberated souls perpetually relish Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam.
artho ’yaṁ brahma-sūtrāṇāṁ
The meanings of the Vedānta-sūtra are present in Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, as are the highest philosophical ascertainments of Mahābhārata. Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the embodiment of the commentary on brahma-gāyatrī, and it gives an elaborate explanation of the meanings of the Vedas.
nānyatra syād ratiḥ kvacit
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is accepted as the essence of all Vedānta. Whoever has been satisfied by the transcendental mellow (bhakti-rasa) of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is never attracted to any other literature.
mathilena śuke, khāilena parīkṣita
Śrī Caitanya-bhāgavata (Madhya-khaṇḍa 21.16)
The four Vedas are like yogurt, and Śrīmad Bhāgavatam is like butter. Śrī Śukadeva Gosvāmī churned that yogurt into butter, and Śrī Parīkṣit Mahārāja relished the result.
Śrī Rājarṣi Śaradendu Nārāyaṇa Rāya then said, “There are many other verses in various scriptures that similarly glorify Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. One can therefore conclude that Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam is the topmost among all the Vedic scriptures. In my opinion, there is no scripture superior to Śrīmad Bhāgavatam.”
Śrīla Prabhupāda again said, “Āge kaha āra—speak further.”
Rājarṣi Śaradendu Nārāyaṇa Rāya replied, “I am unqualified to say anything beyond this.”
Śrīla Prabhupāda then said, “Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta is the most glorious scripture. If I were alive to witness the entire world being submerged in water at the time of its destruction (mahā-pralaya), I would preserve no other scripture than Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta; I would protect it by keeping it on my chest while swimming. The void left by the annihilation of all the Vedic literatures would be filled simply by the existence of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.”
In order to gloriously reveal the extraordinary and divine character of Śrīman Mahāprabhu, the author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, has described nityānanda-tattva, śrī- guru-tattva, kṛṣṇa-tattva, rādhā-tattva and advaita-tattva, as well as Śrī Kṛṣṇa’s special manifestation as pañca-tattva. In narrating the pastimes of Ratha-yātrā and the cleaning the Guṇḍicā temple (guṇḍicā- mandira-mārjana), Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī has established the glories of Vraja, the Vrajavāsīs, their surrender and service mood to Śrī Kṛṣṇa, and the superiority of the vraja-gopīs among all the devotees of Śrī Kṛṣṇa.
Through the narration of Rāya Rāmānanda Saṁvāda, he has presented the essence of all the Vedic literatures by way of a comparative and progressive analysis of the significant instructions of all the various scriptures, and has established the most astonishing glories of parakīya-rasa.
In Rūpa-śikṣā and Sanātana-śikṣā, he has provided analyses of the subtlest aspects of sambandha-, abhidheya- and prayojana-tattvas. Through his narration of the pastimes of Nāmācārya Śrīla Haridāsa Ṭhākura and others, he has established the splendid glories of harināma.
In describing Śrīman Mahāprabhu’s discussions with Śrī Sārvabhauma Bhaṭṭācārya and Śrī Prakāśānanda Sarasvatī, he has recorded the Lord’s thorough rejection of the principles of advaitavāda (non-dualism) and His establishment of the doctrine of acintya-bhedābheda-tattva (inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference) by citing references from śāstra.
Moreover, the way Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī has described the multifarious pastimes of Śrīman Mahāprabhu, in which the Lord has imparted teachings through His exemplary behavior and conduct, is extremely beneficial for the living entities in this Kali-yuga.
Abiding by the sutra “mitaṁ ca sāraṁ ca vaco hi vāgmitā—essential truth spoken concisely is true eloquence,” Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī has very concisely explained the essence of all the scriptures in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.
It is possibly due to the above-mentioned reasons that Śrīla Prabhupāda made such a strong assertion about the supremacy of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta.
I used to visit Śrī Rājarṣi Śaradendu Nārāyaṇa Rāya’s home to collect alms (bhikṣā) along with Śrī Mādhavānanda Prabhu, who had taken harināma from Śrīla Prabhupāda and dīkṣā from our gurudeva. There, I twice had the opportunity to hear directly from Śrī Rājarṣi Śaradendu Nārāyaṇa Rāya about Śrīla Prabhupāda’s glorification of Śrī Caitanya-cairtāmṛta. Although I developed firm faith in the glories of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta after hearing his account, realization was still missing within me. Even when I later read Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta myself, I did not attain realization of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s statements. After hearing discourses on Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta from the many disciples of Śrīla Prabhupāda over the years, and especially when I began translating Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta from Bengali to Hindi and had to pay attention to the meaning of every single word, I became enlightened with ever-new explanations of the many spiritual subject matters contained within this great scripture. Through this translation work, I came to understand, in a very simple and intuitive way, the detailed meanings of many highly subtle verses of Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam. I am only now directly experiencing and realizing the import of Śrīla Prabhupāda’s words.
Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta is certainly more merciful and beneficial than even Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam, the topmost of all Vedic literatures.
In his introduction to Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, Śrīla Prabhupāda has described his complete astonishment that Śrīla Kṛṣṇadāsa Kavirāja Gosvāmī, in relating the pastimes of Śrī Caitanya Mahāprabhu, has exhibited an unmatched proficiency in understanding the deep meanings of all the various scriptures, an extraordinary insight into otherwise unfathomable philosophical subject matters, an unprecedented and thoughtful expertise in using accessible terminology to describe to the common masses even the subtlest of spiritual principles, and a crystal clear understanding of the Kavya, Purāṇas, Itihāsa, Smṛti and Gaṇita (a branch of astrology).
Learned experts predicted that in order to read and follow such an extraordinary transcendental literature, the scholars of the world’s many countries would feel inspired to learn Bengali. Śrīla Kavirāja Gosvāmī’s perfection in rendering sweetly toned poetic compositions (bhāva-mādhurya-parākāṣṭha) is cherished by all renowned poets of the world. His solemnity in describing the pastimes of madhura-rasa can be assessed only by highly qualified persons, the likes of whom are extremely difficult to find.
The author of Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta, in this composition of his, has presented an extraordinary compilation of the subtlest pastimes of Śrīman Mahāprabhu in tandem with citations from various scriptures, and has thereby removed from the weak hearts of his readers the materially inspired tendency to speculate.
The life, activities, conduct and character of Śrīman Mahāprabhu (śrī caitanya-carita) are all eternal, and the ideals represented in Śrī Caitanya-caritāmṛta therefore destroy the living entities’ inclination for sense enjoyment (bhoga-pravṛtti) while establishing them in their true constitutional activity: service to the Supreme Lord (sevā-vṛtti).